Carbohydrates – proteins (amino acids) – fats – minerals – vitamins – water .
1- Carbohydrates : –
It is an essential source of energy in poultry feed and is in grains such as Corn , Wheat , Barley ….etc.
2- Proteins (amino acids) : –
Protein is composed of chains of amino acids is necessary to build body tissues specialy muscles (chest muscle – the thigh muscle), and also to the composition of feathers and egg production .
3- Fats (fatty acids) : –
The basic source of rich energy, it has a vital role in some physiological and immune processes in the body .
4- Vitamins : –
Organic compounds are involved in many body processes some slushy in fat (A, D, E and K) and the others are soluble in water (Vit. B Group) .
5- Minerals : –
Inorganic compounds, and also have a key role in some of the vital processes .
6- Water : –
It is the most critical nutrient that we continually supply to birds, it represents about 70% of total body weight .
The effect of temperature on the feed intake : –
Increasing temperature adversely affect feed consumption, which would lead to : –
1- You should consider seriously the thickness of the litter, no more than 7 cm in summer and not less than 10 cm in winter .
2- The light must be reduced to limit the movement of birds to reduce the thermal stress .
3- Provide the feed in the least periods of temperature (early morning or after sunset) and provide a fraction of feed during the rest of the time .
4- Increase vitamins and minerals in drinking water.
The nutritional requirements vary with bird age, so you must follow the phase feeding program (Starter (pre-starter), Grower – Finishers) .
Starter : –
Grower : –
Finisher : –
Finisher feed from the age of 25-30 days until the marketing .
Organic acids (water and feed) : –
Formic acid – butyric acid –propionic acid …etc.
Essential oils :
The extracted oils of some plants (such as thyme, cloves, pepper …. etc) has been found to have an effect on some pathogenic bacteria in the gut with a feature giving a taste and smell to the finished feed .
It is live beneficial bacteria and yeast, such as Bacillus and lacto-bacillus.In 1989, Fuller defined probiotic as “a live microbial feed supplement, which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal balance” .
Prebiotics are nondigestible feed ingredients that can positively affect the animal organism by stimulating the activity and growth of beneficial native bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and eliminate the pathogenic ones .